Sequoyah

Cultural

    This site covers very broad subjects that are found common to most Native American tribes and communities. The articles are in-depth and fairly accurate. However, very few tribes are specifically mentioned and almost no Cherokee-specific cultural/technical items are covered.

    This site has various lessons on how to write and speak Cherokee. There are also links to dictionary sources and other similar tools.

    This site link takes you to an article the discusses the evolution of the Cherokee language in relation to our peoples’ confrontations with the British, Spanish and other outsiders.

    This is a preservation program of the language being done by the University of Auburn where they are working exclusively with the Echotas, a state recognized band of Cherokees in Alabama. Because the Echotas are the sole reference for the University, one may find that there are noticeable differences in the translations of words (in comparison to translations offered up by the federal tribes) as well as errors in the spelling (probably done by non-indian researchers typing the translations on the site) that will become more and more apparent as you learn the Sequoyan system of writing in Cherokee. Nevertheless, the Echotas and University of Auburn are making great strives in trying to preserve a small morsel of Cherokee heritage and should be commended on the great work that they are doing.

    A general listing of some old Cherokee town names as well as the spellings of the towns at the time. This is both a cultural and genealogical treasure.

    A great article the tells how the Cherokees were forced to leave their homeland under a faulty treaty called the Treaty of New Echota.

    This site takes you to an article on the history of the Treaty of New Echota and what led up to the Trail of Tears.

    This site is a tremendous wealth of knowledge and a true blessing for those of us trying to protect Cherokee culture. Though there is much more to Cherokee culture and life than what this site shows, it is a great place for anyone wishing to understand the basics of what it means to be Cherokee.

John Ross topTop

Genealogical

    The United Keetowah Band of Cherokee Indians was gracious enough to allow us the right to link to their site’s PDF database of their tribal base roll. This link takes you immediately to the scanned image of the 1949 base roll which the “Name”, “Age”, “Degree of Blood” and “Address” of the original membership of the United Keetowah Band of Cherokee Indians, one of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes in America.

    This is a link to the U.S. National Archives & Records Administration’s Archival Research Catalog (ARC) index to the Final Dawes Rolls. Many tribes use the Dawes Rolls as their base roll for enrollment. This site offers up somewhat crude index to these rolls based on the category that names were listed under. There are also links by each category that immediately take you to the scanned image of the original rolls housed by the U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. There are 36,714 names on the Final Dawes Rolls of 1898.

    This is a link to the U.S. National Archives & Records Administration’s Archival Research Catalog (ARC) index to the Guion Miller Rolls. Although some non-federally recognized tribes may use the Guion Miller Roll as their base roll for enrollment, many researchers and genealogists use this roll for assistance in researching the Dawes Rolls. This site offers up the index to these rolls as well as links that immediately take you to the scanned image of the original rolls housed by the U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. There are 62,769 names on this roll, including those applicants that were not accepted for the U.S. Court of Claims May 28, 1906 Eastern Cherokee Tribe settlement. Since the Guion Miller Roll was done over 10 years after the Dawes, some applicants are also listed on the Dawes.

    Many Cherokee records that are housed by the U.S. National Archives & Records Administration can be found in the Forth Worth, Texas depository. This link gives the year(s), description, and roll number(s) that each record covers. Some of the records housed are the Records of the Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, Plots and Surveys of Cherokee Reservations by Robert Armstrong, Henderson Roll, Mullay Roll, Siler Roll, Chapman Roll, Drennen Roll, Powell Roll, Lipe Roll, Hester Roll, Wallace Roll (Revised), Freedman Roll, Starr Roll, Old Settlers Payment Roll, and many others. None of the records listed on this site are viewable online in transcribed or PDF version.

    This site is a listing of many rolls of interest for Cherokee genealogical researchers. There are very few viewable images and/or transcriptions of the rolls or their indexes. However, this site is working on making the rolls viewable in either PDF or transcription form. What can be gleaned from this site is the Reel # information so that you can go to the appropriate records holder(s) and see actual microfilm of the roll you are interested in viewing.

    This site takes you to an article written by James P. Collins and published in Prologue, a periodical published by the U.S. Archives & Records Administration. In this article, Mr. Collins talks about how many historians and genealogists mistakenly state that the 1870 Census was the first Census to list citizens as “Indian”. In the article, Mr. Collins shows where some 40,000 American Indians were listed as “Indian” based on special instructions, to enumerators, to enumerate those people as “Indian” should they be taxed and no longer under tribal rule. Other great information and projections are also discussed in this piece.

    This link takes you to a PDF image of the Muster Roll of the field and staff of a Cherokee regiment commanded by Colonel Gideon Morgan. This division was under a broader division commanded by Jackson to fight off the Creeks.

    This roll concerns a 640 acre parcel in relation of the removing a group of Native American Cherokees to Arkansas pursuant to Article 8 of the Cherokee Treaty of 1817. The original deal cut with these Cherokees was to vest the property into their custody until death. When a person died, their share of the land would revert back to the state. Many of these people never got the land promised to them. This site has merely transcribed the names of people requesting this deal. The site is presently working on a list of the people that actually received the benefits (i.e., land) from this removal deal cut by the government. Please note that only the names are listed. There is no other information listed as to age, sex, nativity, blood quantum, or other important data.

    This link is a partial transcription of Schedule One , including all nine districts, of the Census of 1880 that was authorized by an act of the Cherokee National Council Senate Bill No. 33 on December 1, 1879. While the original census, which can be found on microfilm through the National Archives (Roll #7RA07) and the Latter Day Saints (Roll #989204), included the Delaware, Goingsnake, Sequoyah, and Tahlequah Districts (also referred to as Divisions); this site has only been able to transcribe the Candian, Cooweescoowee, Flint, Illinois and Saline Districts. This transcription comes with a legend of "N cher" for "Native Cherokee", "A col" and "A co" for "Adopted colored or Negro" , "A white" for "Adopted Caucasian", etc. as well as codes for adopted Creek, Choctaw, Osage, and other tribal nationalities. This roll has 10453 records and covers the categories of census "Number", "Surname", "Given" name, "Middle" name, "Nativity", "Age", "Sex", "Division", and additional "Comments."

    This link is a transcription of the names of Cherokee freedmen who were entitled to a $75,000 per capita distribution, with the Shawnee and Delaware, by means of an appropriations act of Congress in October of 1888. The actual rolls are held by the U.S. Archives & Records Administration.

    This site is quick to point out that this is not a transcription of the 1896 Census Rolls but rather this is a list of people that had originally not been recognized by the Cherokee Nation and were thus now making application for citizenship pursuant to the Act of 1896. Therefore, if your ancestor was on the 1896 Cherokee Census, then he/she will not be on this list. This site acknowledges that the information contained comes from 54 rolls of publication #M1650 of the National Archives records in Fort Worth, Texas and are also housed with the Bureau of Indian Affairs as Record Group 75. This transcription of the rolls cover some 12,248 total records and lists the "Last Name", "First Name", "Middle Name", "Tribe", and "Application Number" of each applicant.

    This link is a transcription of the names of Cherokee freedmen, and their descendants, concerning a legal case between the Cherokee Nation and the United States. Persons found on this roll were determined by the United States Government to be Cherokees that were entitled to benefits from the U.S. Court of Claims case.

    This is a transcription of a portion of The Final Roll of Citizens & Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes. This source gives the name of the child, age, gender, and census card number. Ages given were calculated to March 4, 1907.

    A 1930s article concerning a traveling nurse's find of a group of Cherokee that were living near Perdido River in Esacambia County, FL. Special thanks goes out to the Pensacola News Journal for giving us permission to electronically display this article of theirs on our site.

    Joseph G. Hester prepared this roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee in 1883. Copies of the previous census were made available to Hester and he was required to account for all persons on the previous rolls by either including them on the new roll, noting their deaths on the old rolls or describing their whereabouts as unknown either to Mr. Hester or any of the Cherokees. This roll lists 2,956 persons residing in North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Virginia, Illinois, Kansas, Colorado, Kentucky, New Jersey, and California. Those living west of the Mississippi and listed by Mr. Hester were descendants of members of the Eastern Band and apparently had no affiliation with the Cherokee Nation in the west. Information includes ancestors, Chapman Roll Number, age, Christian name, and Cherokee name.

New Echota Historical Monument Site honoring the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears topTop

Legal

    This is a transcription of the Cherokee Treaty of 1791

    This is a transcription of the Cherokee Treaty of 1785.

    This is a transcription of the Cherokee Treaty of 1817. The deal brokered for a 640 acre parcel of land in Arkansas is in direct relation to Article 8 of this treaty. It should go without saying that, like with almost all other American Indian treaties, many of the Cherokee people that this treaty covered did not receive the benefits promised to them by the United States Government.

    A very informative site that not only has a map of what lands were ceded over to the government by the Cherokees but also in what treaty the lands were ceded over by. This site only covers the Southeastern United States. A wonderful resource for anyone interested in the immense size of the original Cherokee nation that once covered over 7 of our contemporary states.

    This is a basic overview, written by an unverified source, on how one is to obtain a CDIB Card. The CDIB is viewed by many to be a racist relic of government bureaucracy. Nevertheless, the CDIB Card is still used today for enrollment and benefits dispersion purposes by both Federally recognized tribes as well as Federal agencies. The CDIB, alone, does not necessarily entitle you to enrollment into any one tribe/band nor does it specifically entitle you to any Federal or State benefits for Native American Indians. Since this site is written by an unverified source, the viewer is strongly urged to specifically address any questions of procedure or requirement, in regards to obtaining a CDIB Card, to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. For any questions of procedure, enrollment, or requirement of a specific American Indian tribe/band, the viewer is strongly urged to directly contact that tribe/band.

    This is a basic index to various laws and treaties relating to American Indians. No actual laws or treaties are viewable in transcribed or PDF form. Rather, this is merely a listing of where these resources may be found at the library of Oklahoma State University.

    This site takes you to a digitally transcribed version of the original Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1935. With this transcription are links to the side for the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, Final Regulations for the Act of 1990, Indian Arts and Crafts Enforcement Act of 2000, and much much more.

    This is a scanned image of the transcribed version of American Indian Religous Freedom Act of 1976 (AIRFA). The AIRFA was intended to protect the American Indian’s Constitutional, as well as often treaty-protected, rights to the Freedom of Religion. These rights were often trumped by the wishes of the state and federal government. The goal of the AIRFA was to rectify this problem.

    This article talks specifically about the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1976 (AIRFA) and how the AIRFA has played out, over time, in the court systems as well as with various federal and state agencies. This is a great introductory piece for those who are interested in how American Indians have been denied basic Constitutional rights.

    This article talks specifically about the Native American Graves Protection and Reparation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA) and how it relates to the protection of grave sites and the return of remains to tribal entities. This is a great introductory piece for those who are interested in historic preservation relating to American Indian burial sites and remains.

    This is a transcription of the Treaty of New Echota, a particularly heinous treaty in that it was made between the U.S. Government and a handful of Cherokees who had not authority from the tribe to make any binding treaty or pact. When the tribe found out about the treaty, John Ross, the rightful chief of the tribe, organized a group and petitioned the government to reject the treaty and the provisions made unto it. As is par with the federal government, Congress and the Supreme Court turned a deaf ear to the truth and the treaty became a binding document that ultimately forced thousands of Cherokees from their God-given homes on a trail of sickness, death and despair known today simply as the “Trail of Tears”.

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